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Saccharin

Historythe oldest sweetener, discovered back in 1879 by Constantin Fahlberg. The first Saccharin factory was founded by Fahlberg and List in 1886. Consumption rose strongly especially during the two World Wars because of a shortage of sugar.
SynthesisSynthesis is carried out using either the Remsen-Fahlberg or the Maumee procedure. In the Remsen-Fahlberg procedure, toluene is converted through sulphurchlorination into the isomer compound of 2- and 4 toluenesulphonyl chloride . 2- toluenesulphonyl amide (also called OTS or OTSA) is then produced from the 2-isomer. 2-benzoic acid sulphamide is then directly obtained in an acid medium through oxidation. The corresponding salts are produced from this and purified through repeated recrystallisation (chiefly from water). This procedure is principally used in Korea.
In the Maumee procedure, the source substance is phthalic anhydride. The anhydride is first of all converted into the imide. After oxidization into the isatoic anhydride, methyl anthranilite (artificial neroli oil) is formed. Through diazotization and transformation with sulphur dioxide and chlorine, 2-sulphonyl chloride of methyl anthranilite is obtained, which can be converted through ammonia into saccharinate. Saccharin is released from this, or it is converted into other salts.
Sensoric features/sweetening powerrapidly perceptible, intense sweetness
300 - 500-times
Characteristics
physiologicalis quickly absorbed, excreted unmetabolized and unchanged by the kidneys
no physiological gross calorific value i.e. calorie-free
toothfriendly and suitable for diabetics
technicalcolourless crystals or white, crystalline, odourless powder
common mesh sizes:
18-20 mesh (1000-850 um)
20-40 mesh (850-425 um)
40-80 mesh (425-180 um)
80-150 mesh (180-100 um)
60-100 mesh (250-150 um; bei Saccharin Säure)
extremely thermostable
suitable for baking and cooking
storage-stable
pH value: 2.0 with Saccharin Acid
5.0 with Saccharin Calcium
6.5-7.0 with Sodium Saccharin
bitter, metallic aftertaste
ADI value5 mg per kg of bodyweight
Fields of applicationtable-top sweeteners (tablets, spoon-for-spoon powders and liquid sweeteners)
water- and milk-based drinks
puddings, desserts
sweets, chocolate
bakery products and baking mixtures
muesli, cornflakes, cereals
chewing-gum
spreads
jams, marmalades
canned preserves and pickled vegetables
marinades, sauces, delicacies
toothpaste, mouthwash
pharmaceuticals
Galvano

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Saccharin_insoluble
Natrium-Saccharin
Calcium-Saccharin